Essays are due 19 April at 10:00pm.

Please choose one of the following options as the topic of your essay:

1. How ‘tolerant’ was medieval Europe? Argue to what degree medieval European societies were ‘tolerant’ of ethnic and/or religious minorities (or a larger underclass of a different ethnicity or faith). Keep in mind how this concept might have been understood at the time.

2. Was there a ‘commercial revolution’? Argue to what degree, or in what ways, the economy of Europe grew between roughly the eleventh century and the fifteenth. Consider how this was appreciated at the time and the consequences this had on society.

3 How did ‘learning’ impact medieval Europe? Argue how, or in what ways, changes in the perception and transmission of knowledge impacted European society between about the eleventh century century and the fourteenth century. Consider what drove these changes and the effect they had on people’s lives.

When composing your essay, use only the knowledge you have gained from the course, and rely only on the weekly Primary Source Readings as your evidence. If the use of any other materials is detected, this will be considered cheating and reported as such – stick to your notes and the assigned primary sources (there are lots of them)!

These topics are very broad, so do not feel like you need to include everything you can think of; instead, formulate a clear and concise argument, ensuring that you directly address the question that you choose (do not modify it), and provide clear evidence, drawn from the assigned primary sources, to support your ideas.

Your essay should be between 1,000 and 1,500 words, display a standard 5-paragraph structure, and be formatted similar to the Research Essays (e.g. font, spacing, etc.).

Because the Primary Source Readings will serve as your evidence, no referencing is required; simply mention which source is being used or where information is being drawn from (e.g. “according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle…” or “as is found in the work of Paul the Deacon…”).